Get ready to get speedy!
Does an aircraft moving faster than the speed of sound produce a sonic boom continually as it moves overhead or only as it breaks the sound barrier? What causes the sonic boom?
When an aircraft is moving faster than sound a shock wave is formed on the leading edges of the aircraft. This shock wave is there as long as the aircraft is moving faster than sound. We only hear the sonic boom when this shock wave passes over us.
To see why the shock wave forms, draw an aircraft on a piece of paper (make it about 3 inches long and facing the nearest edge of the paper. Now let's imagine sound coming from the front edge of the airplane while it is traveling at twice the speed of sound. Use a compass to draw circles representing the soundwave radiating in a sphere from the point where it is generated. The first circle will be 1/2" in radius and 1" behind the nose of the airplane (in the time the airplane traveled 1" the sound travelled half that distance -- i.e., the plane is travelling twice the speed of sound). The next circle will be drawn 1" in radius, 2" behind the nose of the airplane. Then:
You'll notice that if you draw a line that is tangent to all the circles it will emanate from the nose of the airplane. This line represents the shock wave moving out from the nose of the plane. Where it crosses the ground is where the sonic boom is heard. All the sound waves
The aircraft makes a sonic boom as it passes overhead, so long as it is moving faster than sound. Sound waves emitted forward get compressed into a conic shock wave. When that cone crosses your ears, you hear a boom.
A visible example of a shock wave is the "V" that extends behind a speedboat. The boat moves faster than the water waves. Like sound from a supersonic jet, the forward waves get compressed into a single pulse.